Anthropology Notes!

{potentially bad lecture notes. I at least, didn’t fail the class!}

1/3/13 Thursday

​ Anthro 206
​ introduction to socio-cultural
​ take really good notes. k?
​ k.
​ Course reserve readings
​ library online
​ course reserves
​ anthropology
​ ANTHRO
​ Grading…
​ 1st test – end of 3rd week.
​ 20 points
​ exam/midterm
​ end of 6th week.
​ 50 questions MC
​ 25 points of grade
​ quiz
​ from midterm on
​ 20 pts
​ Final Exam
​ 25 pts
​ EVERYthing from midterm
​ Subjective grade
​ 10 pts
​ 100 possible.
​ only basing off 80 pts.
​ same thing, just within 80 pts range.

1/4/13 Friday

​ long flight – singapore?
​ from LAX, 16-20 hours?
​ really long flight…
​ find seat. another enters plane, sits next to you.
​ old lady gives travel pillow.
​ might talk eventually.
​ introduce.
​ "HAI I CAN HAZ GINGER ALE FROM LADY"
​ maybe not that…
​ what’s your general business in sigapore?
​ background?
​ Small talks.
​ as an american.
​ by name. fairly quick.
​ brit would take much longer time.
​ notice accent, ask where from?
​ occupation.
​ say, an anthropologist.
​ man or women?
​ 50/50 really.
​ (oxford didn’t admit women til 1920)
​ they still did anthro works.
​ what branch?
​ archeology?
​ study material remains of past or very scarce cultures.
​ biological
​ biology. heh.
​ palio-anthro.
​ fossil evidence of extict creatures similar to humans.
​ socio-
​ beleif systems, whatnot

Anthropology

​ #Anthropos
​ Greek for "man" and study of man.
​ #logy
​ to study
​ one single purpose.
​ [The Scientific study of humans.]
​ both #biologically, and #culturally.
​ similar?
​ psychology.
​ covering ALL cultures over ALL verifiable time.
​ e’rything.
​ contemporary
​ here and now
​ evolutionary
​ through changes and time.
​ other natural sciences relatable
​ geology
​ biology
​ geography
​ diets?
​ archeo–
​ Coprolite
​ economics
​ Philosophy
​ art, music, ethics, poetry.

ERic Wolf

"anthropology is the most scientific of the humanities. at the same time, it is ​the most humanistic of the sciences."

Anthropology is a blob.

​ absorbs everything.
​ #4 characteristics.
​ I. Physical/Biological Anthropology
​ Study as physical, biological creatures on this earth.

a. paleo-anthropology. (1/7/13)

​ REALLY ancient.
​ (97% ancient creatures are extinct)
​ ooollllddd humans, and human-like creatures.
​ Hominids.
​ earliest findings only in one coninent.
​ Africa.
​ there’s a particular genus only found in Africa.
​ lasted a long time.
​ 4.2-1 million years ago. (MYA) (BP)
​ #Australopithecus.
​ # of species from this Genus.
​ Southern-Ape.
​ very first found was found in South africa, southern hemisphere.
​ They are not us. they are Hominids.
​ #Bipedalism.
​ any other today?
​ no (unless you consider Sasquatch)
​ chimps almost, but femur bones are straight down.
​ humans are V’d to center of gravity.
​ 2.5-1.75 million years ago,
​ #Homo Habilis
​ only in africa, bipedal, large brain.
​ stone tools. (Oldowan)
​ 1.8 MYA – 300,000 years.
​ Homoerectus
​ at first, only found in africa.
​ 1 MYA, starting to be found in asia.
​ able to adapt to cold with FIRE!
​ 1st to equipt fire.
​ Acheulian
​ obsidian axes.
​ sharper than glass or metal.
​ tall, slender, and solidly build.
​ gradient 40,000 – 10,000- now.
​ Homo Sapiens
​ prominant noses,
​ jaws go under, not forward like a dog as these other did.
​ chin bone.

b. Human Variation.

​ bio-chemical, physical traits.
​ it’s not just macro observable traits.
​ also biochemical traits.
​ anthropometrics
​ study of every little physical detail observable.
​ the first way of anthropology
​ Biochemical genetics.
​ historical incedance of small pox.
​ differant blood types on differant places of earth.
​ a, b, o.
​ B, gives a certain resistance from smallpox.
​ like how some scandanavians have a resistance from HIV.
​ almond shaped eyes in asia
​ epicanthic fold.
​ all have, but some much higher frequency than others.
​ also relates to shovel shaped incisors. (flat/straight)
​ native americans as well, ancestors from siberia.
​ Race
​ there is no such thing!
​ all human pop;ulations are overlapping in continuous variation
​ NO characteristics that differ one from another.
​ not even genetically.

c. Primatology.

​ other primates.
​ because we’re very close genetically, and they are social creatures.
​ chimps are very similar to us.
​ 2 types of chimps
​ #Pan – Troglodytes
​ 1775, chimps were homo-troglodytyes
​ people were pissed.
​ they reclassified in 1816 from homo to pan.
​ today, some are considering changing them back to homo, as they are 99.4% similar to us…
​ Pan – Paniscus
​ grecile?
​ closer to us than trogdor
​ HIV
​ tiny place in west africa. rain forest.
​ sanaga river valley in Caneroon.
​ origin of HIV.
​ early 1930’s
​ how did it enter the human pop. ?
​ transfered by the human consumption of chimp brains…
​ couple thousand had it in 1960’s
​ chimps carry HIV, and they don’t die.
​ seem to have a genetic resistance, though they are carriers.

d. Genetics

​ how long been around?
​ 1940’s though 1990’s it really started to get used well.
​ anthropologists collect samples from accross the world.​
​ human genome was sequenced in 2003.
​ 25,000 different genes.
​ chromosome 1
​ completed in 2006.
​ craig betner
​ 1st person to have his genome fully sequenced.
​ 11 years to complete.
​ now, it takes a few days… Whoa!

e. Epidemiology

​ study of desease distribution in human populations.
​ 10,000 years ago
​ humans had crossed a threshfold that changed their ned
​ neolithic period.
​ in that now.
​ domestication of crops and animals.
​ it just happened across the world, each pop. on their own.
​ flu, influensa, chipcken pox, small pox, measles. ect.
​ 1st to live a sedentary lifestyle.
​ from animals that lived with us.
​ Anopheles – species of mosqitoes that carry malaria.
​ plasmodium falciparum,,,,
​ only the female.
​ dawn and dusk.
​ need sunshine and water.
​ 10,000 BP, humans clearing trees and collecting water.
​ perfect enviornment for these little fuckers.

f. Forensic

​ commonly assosiated with crime scenes.
​ archeologist exuming a cemetary
​ being used A LOT for envestigating stuations even 40 years ago. and iraq.
​ grizzly stuff..
​ others…

II. Archaeology.

​ study of the material remains of the past
​ almost always imperfect.
​ never have 100% of the data preserved.

a. Pre-historical

​ before/absence written records

b. Historic

​ presance of written records.

Maya. (classic)

​ existed AD, 300 – 800/900
​ northern central america.
​ there were more people living there than there are now.
​ HUGE cities of blocks of stone in the rain forest.
​ over 14 million people.
​ underworld
​ xibalba
​ until 1990 we only knew a bit of the structures and their ball game. dealing with "pre-historic"
​ stelae
​ stone monoliths.
​ glyphs.
​ brilliant
​ Tatiana somethingikov.
​ noticed that some of these glyphs appeared in the same kind of places, some only in certain cities.
​ numbers
​ bars
​ 5
​ dots
​ 1
​ Vigesimal
​ still today.
​ some glyphs were for times and days.
​ 800 signs that classic maya used in their language.
​ logogram
​ complete idea or word.
​ little glyphs added to it.
​ sylables
​ changes the sound.
​ #logosyllabic form of writing.
​ always vertical
​ read top to bottom
​ left to right every 2 collumns
​ Contract Archeology
​ there for a short period of time to study.
​ couple of weeks
​ then on to another project/area
​ usually urban areas.
​ 2005, WA people were preparing the penell bridge.
​ only way to oly penn was the long way.
​ they had to create space to construct materials.
​ had to dig a lot of ground (Graving Yard)
​ building before puting in the water
​ came across native remains
​ 300 complete human remains
​ 700 icelots
​ 6 full long houses.
​ all subterreanean.
​ over 10,000 artifacts.
​ mexico city
​ in a central valley, surrounded by volcanos and mountains.
​ sitting on a lake.
​ lake Texcoco
​ Tenochtitcan
​ every once in a while, land will subside.
​ very very unstable area.
​ cave-ins, to the old city
​ below Mexico city

III. Linguistics Anthropology.

​ Human Speech and language.
​ Can not be underestimated
​ how we think.
​ mainmeans of how we transmit culture from one generation to the next.

​ how it evolves
​ how it’s pronounced
​ sound

I. Historical

​ like archeology, but with language.
​ start with the current form
​ then converging backwards through time.
​ 31 mayan languages today
​ all grew from 1 language in classic maya.
​ "Root" language.
​ africa
​ 54 countries
​ Nigeria alone, over 500…
​ more than 2,000 languages in Africa.
​ trace backwards,
​ 6 major Root languages.
​ English
​ back all the way,
​ #Indo-european.
​ northern india
​ colsest to english.
​ Fresian
​ northern Holland

II. Descriptive

​ make contact with non’literate people.
​ start recording the elemental sounds and syllables
​ english
​ 35-36 sounds
​ range!
​ as few as 10, up to 100.
​ then try to figure the grammer.
​ how these sounds create words.
​ ndikupita ku sukulu
​ I_over time_to go , to , School
​ Chinyanja
​ has to end with a vowel
​ sitinapitase
​ neg, we, past, to go, collectively.
​ Sitidzakupitase

​ both a word, AND a sentance.

III. Ethnolinguistics

​ the study of language,
​ through the study language, the beleif system
​ based on the fact that the structures contained in the primary lang learned at birth with fundamentally shape the way you view reality.
​ you will never be able to escape it.
​ another language would change your world view.
​ Navajo
​ see 3 types of seperate blacks, we see 1 (colors…)
​ relative to Everything, not jsut color.
​ color is a spectrum, not solid things.
​ different cultures only percieve the spectrum differently.

IV. sociolinguistics

​ "fuckin’ traffic is shit out there!"
​ er, wrong language for the context.
​ we use different forms of language in a classroom, than watching football
​ all english still.
​ it’s called #Code Switching/Shifting
​ the study of speech
​ how language is used in realy social sontext.
​ hierarchy
​ gender
​ age
​ "nigger" or "cracker"
​ young to old call them that?
​ no…

IV. Socio-cultural Anthropology.

​ terms
​ ` study of contemporary population
​ a particular cultural region.
​ not only cultural
​ topical
​ poetry?
​ writing?
​ food?
​ music?
​ ethnography
​ description of culture
​ ethnology
​ making sense of things in a culture
​ primary data from
​ experiences
​ secondary
​ libraries and databases.
​ participant observation
​ father of american socio-cultural anthropology
​ 1st true anthropologist in the US.
​ columbia Univ. in NY.
​ 1st to engage in participant observation.
​ [Franz Boas]
​ 1858 – born
​ Germany
​ 1942, died in the US.
​ Bronislaw Malinowski
​ polish
​ frail as a child
​ mother read to him
​ Sir James Frazer
​ The Golden Bough
​ proto-anthropologist
​ never ever did field work, but was chairman at cambridge
​ ph.d in phisics at 21.
​ london school of economics
​ the place to be for anthropologists.
​ WWI broke out while in Australia.
​ they kept him there, or he could return to become an officer for the polish army.
​ he decided to do field work.
​ papa new guinea
​ 3 years doing field work.
​ Trobriand ISL’s
​ learned language in 6 months..
​ professor at London —
​ called it Social Anthropology.
​ Social and Cultural are the same thing.
​ some major ways to study society.
​ to approach a culture
​ [] []
​ Etic
​ Start out with a pretty fine theoretical point of view.
​ say,
​ marxist.
​ good at studying inequality in society.
​ Emic
​ NO predifined theoretical point of view.
​ from the inside out.
​ their own view.
​ open mind.

​ Franz Boas (1858-1942)

​ the shackles tradition
​ 1883
​ arrived at the arctic
​ geography of land at first
​ traveled 3,000

​ born in west Voyer
​ went to hidelberg univ.
​ had develing scar on forehead
​ made map of Boffin island.
​ VS. envoronmental Determinism.
​ eskimos
​ inuit 1883-Baffin ISC
​ did things in spite of their envoronment.
​ cultural relativism.
​ 1885 returned toi germany
​ Berlin, Ethnodraphic Museum
​ 1887, married
​ Curator of American Natural history Museum
​ Tlingit
​ Nootka
​ Haida
​ Bella Bella
​ Bella Coola
​ Kwakiutl
​ spent the rest of his life studying them.
​ George Hunt
​ Professor of Anthropology at Columbia Univ.
​ Jessup N. Pacific Expedition.
​ Potzatch
​ once a language disappears, so does the culture…
​ wanted to see how the diversity of each ethnicity physically changed through generations of reproduction.
​ Anthropometrics
​ Kultur
​ started the term Cultural Anthropology
​ must know the two groups to accociate with.
​ in his case,
​ inuits
​ kwakiktu
​ he spoke out against the idea of Race.
​ 1st to really ponder and say out loud that Race doesn’t exist.
​ risked his career.

CONCEPT

​ `Cultural Relativism.
​ contrasted to eachother, but go together in a sense. ?
​ the attempt to fully understand other beleifs and behaviors in their own cultural context.
​ anthorpologists DO take moral stands.
​ Ethnocentrism
​ the implicit grantid belief that YOUR culture is superior to all the others.
​ ALL cultures and societies have this.
​ if they didn’t, would they survive?
​ no.
​ Failure to understand other beleifs and behaviors within their own cultural context.
​ we try to put aside our own biases to understand other cultural beleifs.
​ cultural relativism

Culture

​ what is?
​ Gave that dude a handshake
​ really, he stuck his right hand out.
​ open palm, thumb up
​ kid was almost obligated to react with a returning "handshake"
​ shook, up and down.
​ carried out for the most part Unthinkingly.
​ [] []
​ 1871
​ sir E.B. Tilor
​ never did field work.
​ proto-anthopologist.
​ "Arm-chair anthopologists"
​ #Complex_Whole
​ which includes
​ knowledge
​ beleifs
​ art
​ morals
​ law
​ custom
​ any capabilities and habits.
​ accuired by man as a member of society.
​ man?
​ Chimps have cultures too..
​ Wholistic
​ everything in a package
​ "holism"
​ change one things,
​ ripples through everytthing else.
​ [][]
​ 1992
​ Ferraro
​ Everything that people have, think, and do as members of society.
​ much better!
​ –Culture is shared and learned ways of thinking and behaving.–
​ material possesions are products of thinking and behaving. (whoa, lined up!)
​ takes a year to get government clearence
​ woman to study loneliness
​ denied
​ beleived she was a witchc
​ witches are alone.
​ didn’t want the world to know they were full of witches.
​ be really careful about how you go about researching other cultures.
​ learning a language.
​ Chinyanja
​ as soon as he got in the country, we met a person to help him learn.
​ found them to be bilingual
​ Chiyao
​ Malawi Fieldwork Terms…
​ [][]
​ Malawi
​ country
​ SE Africa
​ 500 m long, 100 m wide
​ very small
​ 1/5 is underwater
​ one of the deepest lakes in the world
​ 365 m long
​ 11 million people
​ avg. elevation 4000 ft.
​ lots of mountains.
​ ​ very deep valleys.
​ ​ 50% tell you their christian
​ ​ also very likely they still practice traditional/islamic things too
​ ​ Syncretistic Belief System
​ ​ mix of more than 1 belief system.
​ most drop out of school after 3 years.
​ 2% go to high school
​ ​ 0.something on to college…
​ life exp.
​ 40-60
​ twice that in the US.
​ people live off the land.
​ main exports
​ coffee, tea, tobbacco.
​ main food
​ maize.
​ David Livingstone
​ 1859
​ asked the people of the lake what the lake was called
​ they replied
​ Nyasa
​ means Lake.
​ >1964
​ Nyasa land
​ 1964< Malawi
​ slave trade going on,
​ many found themselve with arab slave traders
​ Yao
​ ones in the slave trade
​ 90% chinyanja
​ 10% Chinyao
​ cheifs of families wer Chinyao
​ Dr. Hastings Kamuzu Banda
​ virtual dictator
​ militarized.
​ absolute police state
​ 1992
​ major demonstrations agains Banda
​ 1995
​ put him in prison.
​ died in his 90’s
​ Malonje
​ village
​ very rural, rolling terrein.
​ at the foot of an extinct volcano.
​ Zomba
​ many foot paths coming off it, to other locations.
​ main one is 2 miles before the only paved hyway in the country.
​ 2000 pop.
​ kept people out in the coutryside
​ wood for energy
​ lots of trees.
​ keep up fruit trees.
​ only 6 extended families could live off it’s resources.
​ others starved and desease and whatnot…

​ Zomba
​ Volcano

​ Chinuanja
​ Chinyao


​​
​ Chiputu
​ Limeto
​ Namkungwi

​ Jando
​ Nakanga

​ Chikamveka
​ "Famin where it is revealed"
​ wotchcraft
​ born with it.
​ don’t know you have it.
​ believe it resides in the liver
​ unconciously cause evil.
​ alone
​ unfriendly
​ good at minipulation
​ Mwabvi
​ poison ordeal for possible witches.
​ from the root of a plant with very high concentration of alkaline
​ you die, you witch. no, you’re good.


​​
​ Chikumbutso
​ secondary burial
​ body in noriginal home
​ 2 days
​ taken to the cemetary
​ NOT the front door.
​ have to fool the spirit.
​ out the back wall.
​ buried
​ c​hikumbutso
​ reburial year later
​ ​ any remains of flesh mixed woith the food of the feast for the family to eat…
​ ​ a way to reincorporate the soul with the kinship.
​ Endocanibalism
​ anthropophagy
​ Theophagy

​ Mbumba/Nkhoswe

​ end of dry season: september
​ dirt, planted around rocks.
​ too much work.
​ dec-march Rain season.
​ 14 times more waterfall at any given moment there than it does here in WA.
​ VERY destructive.

​ April
​ harvest
​ April-may
​ cold, dry season.
​ june-sept. hot dry season.
​ all traditional ceremonies during this time.
​ Dimba
​ wet land garden.
​ Nkokwe
​ Chigayo
​ Subzi
​ mtondo Songs
​ muns/mwisi
​ chikokeyani
​ their homebrewed beer.
​ hot dry season
​ Kachasu
​ moonshine
​ should drink within 3 days,
​ then turns toxic.
​ matralineage
​ extended familoy group
​ mbumba
​ don’t belong to the kjinship group of your father.
​ only mother.
​ mother’s brother
​ male gaurdien
​ Nkhoswe
​ Mo-in-law Avoidance.
​ polygyny
​ multiple wifes
​ polyandry
​ multiple husbands
​ everyone had to belong to the one political partry of their virtual dictator.
​ Mondu
​ judge/jury
​ whole village in court cases.
​ call him by title:
​ Cheif Kumalonje
​ cheiftain ship
​ ranked cheiftainships.
​ some higher rank.
​ some control other cheifs and their villages.
​ how to be cheif?
​ inherits from his mother’s brother.
​ ​ can have female cheifs.
​ oratory
​ singing
​ speaking
​ tilitomsay
​ Femaile initiation.
​ most important event in their lives.
​ Chinamwali
​ thing to the initiative
​ female initiation.
​ edge of the village.
​ oin the ridge.
​ Tsimba
​ Enclosure
​ 3 day event.
​ any man come near, he’d be killed.
​ I. Chiputu
​ 3 day affair.
​ just reaching puberty.
​ ~9-12 years old.
​ partly peer preasure, everyone wants to go through it.
​ Morning
​ girls arising with the sun,
​ singing.
​ emerge from houses,
​ go onto paths eventually towards the hill.
​ enter Tsimba
​ woman are singing initiation songs
​ incharge:
​ ​ (an)amkungwi
​ ​ main healer woman in the village.
​ ridiculed
​ sit in hands on lap, heads down.
​ lose your personal name.
​ just become an initiate.
​ like a group identity.
​ their heads are shaved.
​ their clothing given away.
​ [][]Right of seperation.
​ shedding their old identity.
​ learn how to give proper sex,
​ how to give proper birth.
​ how to cook, and when.
​ all sacred.
​ sometimes used skit.
​ acted how what the wrong way of things are.
​ instead of the right way.
​ transformation religiously into another being
​ you become Female.
​ now an adult.
​ allowed to have ligitimate sex
​ allowed to have legitimate children.

​ II. Limeto
​ already woman.
​ 1 day, 24 hour affair.
​ sit in L for 24 hours…
​ pre-iomposed Navel s​ource
​ teaches proper diet, birth positions,
​ Jando
​ Male initiation.
​ Nakanga
​ male practitional initiator.
​ 3 month affair.
​ ritual gate.
​ once in, you’r in/
​ if a female goes through, she is gang raped til she dies.
​ lined up very still…
​ circumcised right there.
​ used a sharp chip of glass bottle.
​ has head cushions on from mothers bringing meals to the gate.
​ Completely transformed antologically
​ truely transformed into another entity.
​ a true adult.

​ gifting
​ creates an obligation to counter-gift in some way.
​ "Reciprocity"
​ Teknonymy
​ tabboo of calling something or someone by name, not in general.
​ anthropologists take great pride in feild work.
​ when talking to peoople, they being ownest/ truthful?
​ participant observation
​ you can tell the differance between what you beleive they do, and what they really do.
​ though they may act differant with your pressance.
​ there is just you to observe many,
​ can’t be everywhere at once.
​ again, your pressance alters their behavior.

​ video
​ children leanr shamanistic practices
​ Ebene
​ halucinigenic drug
​ hekura
​ spirits
​ horticulturalists
​ clear land, plant gardens, hunting gathering
​ yanomamo
​ [][][ Generosity is found in all cultures.
​ kinship is the basis for social integration
​ marriages between kin groups.
​ villages may split by shoice, or other reason.
​ taboo against using direct names of dead ancestors.
​ Teknonymy
​ shallow patrilineages

​ N. chagnon
​ 30% adult male deaths from warfare.
​ you have to take sides in fights.

​ polygymy
​ drink burned ashes of kinships when dead.
​ including him.
​ ranisteriopsis
​ language
​ the ability to reate and use language is probably the most distinct feature of humans.
​ MAJOR means of transmitting knowledge from one to another.
​ most concentrated means.
​ used every day of our lives
​ in between us ourselves and what’s really real.
​ how we make sense of reality
​ the way we think.
​ language and culture are indivisible, same coin.
​ it’s the key to doing Feild work.
​ diff. cultures have diff. views and languages
​ so this key is how to understand them.
​ #Language is a symbolic system of sounds.
​ only some sounds have different meanings in diff. cultures.
​ diff. sounds in diff. languages.
​ from 10, to 100 sounds.
​ nothing inevitable regarding sound and what it means.
​ symbolic
​ Arbitrary to what they mean.
​ ki
​ chey
​ emtango
​ all Tree
​ though, never go by the look of lettering like this. go by the SOUND.
​ IMPORTANT!!!!!!!!!!!!
​ so, no real connection to the sounds with the thing.
​ …
​ [][] Language is a symbolic system of sound with a Grammer.
​ [][] and convey meaning to its speakers.
​ [][]___ and it’s always changing.
​ order in what we place sounds to create words in every language.
​ syntax – Sentance formation.
​ Sierra Leone
​ Krio
​ mixes of multiple languages, nativised to become the priomary language in Sierra Leone.
​ toto yoho isye kamara
​ hixkaryana
​ man grab jaguar
​ to them, it means
​ jaguar grab man.
​ dialects
​ diff. versions of a language.
​ jafaikan

​ how to tell nthe diff. between dialect and another language?
​ Mutual Unintelligibility
​ closed system of communitation
​ characeristic of the "rest of the animal world"
​ call systems
​ produce a particular sound,
​ has a meaning.
​ NOT combined with others to make othetr meanings.
​ will not change.
​ open system of communication.
​ finite number of sounds.
​ can be combined in many many ways.
​ endless possibility of recombination
​ "productivity"
​ human languages.
​ displacement
​ USED to think chimps didn’t have, but they DO.
​ things in other unseen room
​ past events.
​ they won’t say anything totally nonsense and unrelated.
​ Structure.
​ Phoneme
​ phonology
​ minimal unit of sound.
​ decsriptive linguist
​ go out and start collecting units of sounds.
​ "NGomBe"
​ full value to vowels
​ Paraha
​ only 10 osunds,
​ very reduced.
​ women only use 9 sounds.
​ very unique.
​ English
​ "normal" amount
​ 35-36 sounds
​ 24 consinants
​ 9/ or 11 vowels
​ 3/ or 2 semivowels
​ Kalahari Desert.
​ fills most of botswana
​ Khoisan
​ amongst the aboriginal people in africa
​ !kung
​ over 90 conseinants
​ ​ "click languages"
​ ​ most languages in the world are explosive (outward)
​ ​ these are implosive (inward)
​ Morpheme
​ minimal units of meaning.
​ can also be a phoneme
​ therefore, not only a minumal sound, mut also a minimal meaning.
​ can ba made of 1 OR multi phonemes.
​ RAT
​ ART
​ free morphione
​ IST
​ no meaing til attatched
​ ARTIST
​ bound morphine
​ s
​ bound morpohine
​ ARTISTS
​ ALL BOUT SOUNDS
​​​